FAQ

Thank you for visiting our website. If you have any questions, send us an email at geshho@yahoo.com and we will post the answers on our website.

 

 What is HHO and how much is needed?

Hydrogen is the lightest and most common element here on earth. However, hydrogen doesn't occur naturally as gas—it is always combined with other elements. Water, for example, is a combination of hydrogen and oxygen (H2O).                                                                              

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diatomic_molecule

Hydrogen is non-toxic. Its combustion produces water and also results in dramatic increase in MPG. A typical car will use 1/4 to 1/2 liter of HHO per liter of engine size. For example 5.0 or 6.0 liter engine (gas or diesel) will need about 2 to 2.5 liters of HHO per minute. Gains on your vehicles will vary based on the engine’s size, the amount of HHO, climate, and your driving habit.

 

How does On-Demand HHO Fuel System work?

 

On-Demand HHO Fuel System uses vehicles electrical system to produce Hydrogen and Oxygen through Electrolysis. This action splits water molecules into 2 atoms of Hydrogen and 1 atom of Oxygen (HHO). Hydrogen and Oxygen is then injected into vehicles air intake in real time while you’re driving your car.The result is dramatic improvement in MPG, improved performance, and substantially less exhaust emissions.

 

Can HHO damage my Car's engine or pollute the environment?

HHO in such small concentrations will not damage the engine. In addition there is no Carbon Monoxide or other greenhouse gasses being produced. It is truly a clean fuel.  HHO ‘boosts’ the fossil fuel burning giving you better and cleaner burn.

What is State of California position on the use of Hydrogen as a fuel for vehicles?

Hydrogen is an excellent vehicle fuel for many reasons. The U.S. Department of Energy compares hydrogen very favorably to other fuels. Hydrogen is not toxic, poisonous or corrosive. As a result of hydrogen's benign nature, it doesn't harm the environment or public health. If hydrogen were to leak it would disperse into the air almost immediately because it is so light.

http://www.hydrogenhighway.ca.gov/hysafety/hysafety.htm

California Environmental Protection Agency - Air Resources Board lists hydrogen as a viable alternative fuel for use in motor vehicles as well motor driven equipment.

http://www.arb.ca.gov/msprog/zevprog/factsheets/altfuels_fs.pdf

Governor Schwarzenegger announced on April 20, 2004 his vision for the California Hydrogen Highway Network and signed an Executive Order outlining that vision. The following is part of the preamble for the Executive Order. Or you can click on the following link and read Executive Order S-7-04 in its entirety. Executive Order S-7-04

EXECUTIVE ORDER S-7-04

by the Governor of the State of California

WHEREAS, hydrogen, a non-carbon energy carrier which can be made from clean renewable energy, is ideally suited to address global, regional and local energy and environmental challenges; and

WHEREAS, the State of California is a world leader in renewable energy production, efficiency and conservation, clean air and emission controls, environmental goals and planning, as well as creating, promoting and commercializing new technologies and industries; and

WHEREAS, hydrogen-powered vehicles and infrastructure can lead to energy independence; offer zero or near-zero smog-forming emissions; reduce health problems due to motor vehicle-related air pollution; reduce water pollution from oil and gasoline leaks; lower global warming pollution; improve fuel economy; quieter and smoother operation; as well as provide economic and workforce benefits to help California meet current and future energy needs.

           NASA [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C.]   

         

 

        In their Technical Note Report E-9105 from May 1977, NASA says:

"Adding hydrogen to gasoline significantly increases flame speed and allows for a leaner air-fuel ratio. All emissions levels decreased at these leaner conditions.

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is a primary user of hydrogen as an energy fuel; it has used hydrogen for years in the space program. Liquid hydrogen fuel lifts the space shuttle into orbit. Hydrogen batteries—called fuel cells—power the shuttle’s electrical systems. The only by-product is pure water, which the crew uses as drinking water.

http://www.eia.doe.gov/kids/energyfacts/sources/IntermediateHydrogen.html

The American Hydrogen Association Test Lab:                                                    

"Emissions test results indicate that a decrease of toxic emissions". Zero emissions were observed on CO (carbon oxide).

 

 

 

Will installing an On-Demand HHO Generator void my vehicle Warranty?

The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) has enacted the Magnuson-Moss Warrant to protect you.

                                                                        

           Understanding the Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act of 1975.

Vehicle manufacturers are not allowed to void the vehicle warranty just because aftermarket parts are on the vehicle. To better understand this problem it is best to know the differences between the two types of new car warranties and the two types of emission warranties (defect and performance)  under the clean air act. The defect warranty requires the manufacturer to produce a vehicle which, at the time of sale, is free of defects that would cause it to not meet the required emission levels for it's useful life as defined in the law. The performance warranty implies a vehicle must maintain certain levels of emission performance over its useful life. If the vehicle fails to meet the performance warranty requirements, the manufacturer must make repairs at no cost to the owner, even if an aftermarket part is directly responsible for a warranty claim, the vehicle manufacturer cannot void the performance warranty. This protection is the result of a parts self - certification program developed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Specialty Equipment Market Association (SEMA). In cases where such a failed aftermarket part is responsible for a warranty claim, the vehicle manufacturer must arrange a settlement with the consumer, but by law the new - vehicle warranty is not voided. Overall, the laws governing warranties are very clear.

Guide to the Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act:

www.ftc.gov/bcp/edu/pubs/business/adv/bus01.shtm

www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnuson-Moss_Warranty_Act

www.impalaclub.com/naisso/magmoss.htm

How do I handle things when I have to smog my vehicle?

According to California state law and accordance with state smog provisions, after market items such as On-Demand Hydrogen Generators are treated the same as items such as nitrous oxide devices and must be rendered inoperable for the smog check. The units do not need to be removed but visually must be disconnected. Usually this means that the electrical and hydrogen gas tubes need to be disconnected and capped off. Once the test has been performed you just need to reconnect the unit. Check your state laws to determine the legality of adjusting vehicle sensors.

Can I do the installation myself ?

We recommend that the installation be performed by professional mechanic.

How often do I have to add water to the system?

Every vehicle is a little different. On the average you will need about 2 cups of distilled water every 1000 miles.

http://hho4free.com/lpm_calculator.htm

What is Electrolyte?

Electrolyte is electrically conductive medium.  In the production of HHO gas using electrolysis catalyst is the correct term because of the function it performs to speed up electrolysis. To produce electrolysis, two solid electrical conductors, such as metal or graphite rods, are placed into a liquid. The rods are called electrodes. Wires connect the electrodes to the terminals of a battery or to a direct current generator. The liquid must contain a substance, called an electrolyte, that enables it to carry the current and complete the electrical circuit. For example, distilled water cannot be electrolysed because it does not conduct electricity well. But it can be electrolysed if a little table salt (sodium chloride), which is an electrolyte, is added to it. The electrodes, the liquid, and the container that holds them make up an electrolytic cell.

Major electrolytes are as follows:                                                                                                                          

Sodium (Na+) Positive Ions, Potassium (K+) Positive Ions, Chloride (Cl-) Negative Ions, Calcium (Ca2+) Positive Ions, Magnesium (Mg2+) Positive Ions, Hydroxides (OH) - Negative Ions, Bicarbonate (HCO3-) Negative Ions, Phosphate (PO42-) Negative Ions, Sulfate (SO42-) Negative Ions

Which Electrolye do you recommend ? 

There are many types of electrolyte that are being used in electrolysis. However we recommend only Potassium Hydroxide (KOH) to be used with our Generators. A good source for purchasing KOH is at:www.FuelCellution.com

What is Electrolysis?

Electrolysis is a method of separating chemically bonded compounds by passing an electric current through them. The result is a mixture of Hydrogen (H2) and Oxygen (O2) gases, typically in a 2:1 atomic ratio, the same proportion as water. HHO is what we add to our fuel mix in our engines when installing a Hydrogen on demand system and this is what gives us better gas mileage. HHO generators are the main component in a hydrogen on demand production. They also refer to as Hydroxy Gas Generators. This device can be a simple one cell unit or have as many cells as needed to produce the quantity of HHO gas desired.

 The electrode connected to the battery's negative pole is the cathode. It carries electrons from the battery to the electrolytic cell. The electrode connected to the battery's positive pole is the anode. It carries electrons from the electrolytic cell back to the battery. As the current flows through the electrolytic cell, chemical changes take place at the surfaces of the electrodes. At the cathode, the electrolysed liquid combines with electrons supplied by the battery. This process is called reduction. At the anode, the liquid gives electrons to the anode. This process is called oxidation. In the electrolysis of water, the water combines with electrons at the cathode and is reduced to hydrogen gas. At the anode, water gives up electrons and is oxidized to oxygen gas. The volume of the hydrogen produced is always twice the volume of the oxygen produced, because water contains two atoms of hydrogen for each atom of oxygen. In the electrolysis of solutions containing ions (charged atoms) of such metals as copper and silver, the reduction of the metal at the cathode causes the metal to be deposited, or to plate out, on the cathode the production of Hydroxy gas.

Laws of Electrolysis

The English chemist Michael Faraday was one of the first scientists to investigate electrolysis. After many careful experiments and calculations, he stated the following three "laws" governing electrolysis:

1. The ability of an electric current to cause electrolysis does not depend on the distance between the electrodes.

2. The quantity of a substance that is electrolysed is proportional to the quantity of the electricity used.

3. The quantity of a substance that is electrolysed is also proportional to the substance's chemical equivalent. The chemical equivalent of a metal is its atomic weight (in grams) divided by its valency.

Faraday found that approximately 96,500 coulombs of electricity are required to electrolyse one chemical equivalent of any metal. For example, the atomic weight of copper is 63.54, and the valence of copper salts is +2. Therefore, the chemical equivalent of a copper salt solution is 31.77 grams. This amount of copper will plate out onto the cathode when 96,500 coulombs are passed through the solution.

The number of coulombs that flow in each second is measured in units called amperes. Voltage is like an electrical pressure that pushes the coulombs through the circuit. In electrolysis, voltage is just as important as amperage. A certain minimum voltage is needed to produce electrolysis in any given substance. For example, a minimum of 1.23 volts is needed to electrolyse water to hydrogen and oxygen at 25 °C.

What is Hydroxy gas?

Hydroxy gas is a nickname for combination of hydrogen and oxygen gas ( HHO ) produced from the electrolysis of water.

Is KOH (potassium hydroxide) dangerous?

KOH is very alkaline and is a “strong base”. The dissolution in water is strongly exothermic, producing substantial amounts of energy in form of heat, leading to temperature rise, sometimes up to boiling point and over. As a very strong base/alkali, potassium hydroxide is very corrosive, both towards inorganic as well as organic materials, including living tissues; care must be therefore taken, when handling the substance and its solutions. It is commonly used as a catalyst in the HHO fuel cell.

Do I need Electronic Fuel Injection Enhancer ( EFIE )?

When HHO is introduced into the engine along with petroleum based fuel, it will cause the flame speed to increase. This allows more of the petrol to burn during the power stroke and will dramatically increase combustion efficiency and your MPG. The ECU ( Electronic Control Unit ) is often fooled by the reduced quantity of unburned hydrocarbons and increased oxygen content, and often will add fuel to compensate. This can ruin your mileage gains.  EFIE  adjusts the sensor inputs as necessary so the ECU is not blocking the gains. Therefore the purpose of the EFIE is to make the needed adjustments to the oxygen sensor's signal. If you are installing your Hydrogen On Demand system on a car or truck that is 1996 or newer, you need to install EFIE.

Do I need an EFIE for Diesel engine?

Vehicles with carburetors and diesels that are not equiped with O2 sensors do not require an EFIE. All other fuel injected engines will need to have it's electronics handled to get the gains.

Do I need to reset my car’s ECU ?

We cover this point in our Instruction Manual. Some computers are able to "learn" and adapt to the conditions that exist in your engine. Since you have made a major change by adding an HHO system and EFIEs, you may need to reset the computer to erase what it learned about the system when it was inefficient. You can reset your computer by disconnecting your battery ground wire from the car, and leaving it off for 15 or 20 minutes and reconnecting it again. You don’t have to do this every time you make a change to the EFIE's setting. But its a good idea to do this once you have installed a new system.

Should I replace the air cleaner?  

A dirty air cleaner can ruin gas mileage. It causes a richer mixture by restricting air flow to the engine. You can often just blow off the air cleaner with compressed air, but severe cases require replacement. Factually, you really can't go wrong with replacement because you will certainly recoup the cost in gas mileage improvement.  

Should I tune-up my engine prior to installation of hho system?

We strongly recommend it. If your engine is not working properly, adding an HHO system will not correct that. You will often find that just by tunning your engine, you will get a dramactic increase in mileage all by itself. If you had any kind of check engine light before starting the project, you should get this fault explored and handled. If you're not sure, reset your computer, turn off all of your HHO, EFIEs and any other added modifications, and see if you still get a fault code. If so, get it fixed first, before adding your modifications. Sometimes fault codes don't show up as a check engine light, but can still be read by a standard reader. If you have a vehicle that was manufactured in the US after 1995, you can take your car to a part house, and they will often read your codes for free, and help you get them handled.

What is Flashback arrestor?

A Flashback arrestor is a safety device that shuts off gas flow in the event of flash back. Flashback is the combustion of a flame mixture that can occur within gas management system. Flame can travel back through the line to the source if a Flashback arrestor is not in line. Flashback arrestor shuts off gas flow and extinguishes the flame before it can reach the gas source. Flashback arrestor  is highly recommended if you are thinking about installing HHO system in your car. For more safety tips go towww.hho4free.com/safety.htm

What is Pulse Width Modulator ( PWM )?

Current is the key to HHO Gas. One of the important components to a good HHO gas conversion system is Pulse Width Modulator (PWM). This electronic circuit board resides in the electronic control box and monitors the electrical pulses flowing throughout the HHO system. It regulates the current flow and prevents overheating. As a result the best possible HHO gas, "ortho" hydrogen is produced by On Demand HHO Generator. Constant Current" feature means manual adjustments of your PWM are unnecessary. You only have to set the desired amperage you want your system to draw. When the cell warms up it will try to draw more current. The PWM reduces the pulse width and brings the current back to the desired amount. If the cell is cold, it will increase the pulse width and bring the current up to the desired amount. This allows you to run your system at the desired current at all times, and maximize your system's performance. All our kits come exclusively with Constant Current PWM.

I installed the system, why I'm not getting a mileage increase ?

With modern HHO Generators and EFIEs there is really no excuse for not getting a 30% - 40% increase in mileage. If you are getting below 20% you must assume that something is wrong, and if corrected will give you the proper mileage results. Some people have gotten over 60% improvement but this isn't the norm.

How can I check if HHO is getting into the engine?

There were cases where a leak in the system was keeping the hydrogen from getting into the engine. A split hose, loose connection or reservoir and water trap lids were not tight enough or had a leak. Spray your hoses and connections with soapy water to expose any leaks in your system.

Why Distilled water is needed to operate HHO Generator?

Rainwater, spring water, or tap water contain impurities. A typical analysis will show minerals, suspended solids and other contaminates in these varieties. These impurities will precipitate out of water when subjected to electrolysis. These appear in the form of brown, black and green scum in water. These impurities have a solid mass which in turn will clog up the electrodes of your HHO generator and further impede the operation of the HHO cell overall. Of further concern is the fact that these solids accompany known gases which mix with HHO gas to go on to create chemical reactions which could be toxic to the environment. Therefore ONLY DISTILLED WATER should be used in the production of HHO gas from any type of generator.

Should oxygen sensors need to be replaced?

Oxygen sensors wear out. You car's service manual will tell you if your oxygen sensors need to be replaced. Note, use of leaded gas at any time can cause the early demise of an oxygen sensor, so keep this in mind. If you are experiencing engine stalls or fast idle, this can be a symptom of bad oxygen sensors. If they are old, it is likely that replacing them will give you a good increase in mileage all by itself.

How many litres of HHO can be produce from 1 litre of water?

One litre of water can produce 1,860 litres of HHO gas. In addition 34,116 calories are produced for each gram of Hydrogen bured.

What is Brown'sGas?

Yull Brown a Bulgarian student who origionally went by Ilya Velbov filed a patent on his design of an HHO gas electrolyzer and spent most of his life trying to make Brown's Gas (HHO) a mass market success. He spent nearly 30 years and around 30,000,000 dollars of investors money on the project before his death in 1998. Because of his efforts, HHO gas is still being referred to as Brown's gas in his name. For more information on HHO Generators please go to www.geshho.com

http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=4081656.PN.&OS=PN/4081656&RS=PN/4081656

What happens to HHO Gas during combustion?

A pure stoichiometric mixture is obtained by water electrolysis which uses electric current to dissociate the water molecules:

Electrolysis: 2 H2O = 2 H2 + O2

Combustion: 2 H2 + O2 = 2H2O

What are the properties of HHO Gas?

Oxyhydrogen ( HHO ) will combust when brought to its autoignition temperature. For a stoichiomertric mixture at normal atmospheric pressure, autoignition occurs at about 570 degrees C ( 1065 degrees F ). The minimum energy required to ignite such a mixture with a spark is about 20 microjoules. At normal temperature and presure, Oxyhydrogen can burn when it is between 4% and 95% hydrogen by volume. When ignited, the gas converts to water vapor and releases energy, which sustains the reaction: 241.8 kJ of energy ( LVH ) for every mole of H2 burned. The amount of energy released is independent of the mode of combustion.

How old is this technology?

Way back in 1776, a man named Henry Cavendish, a British scientist, discoverd what he called " inflammable air". He wrote a paper called "On Factitious Airs" in 1776 describing the density of inflammable air which formed water on combustion. Later on down the road, a man by the name of Antoine Lavoisier reproduced Cavendish's experiment and coined the element's name Hydrogen. During the same year, a Dutch scientist named Martnus van Marum was conducting various experiments with electricity when he created  a mixture of oxygen and hydrogen and discovered that the mixture could be ignited by an electric spark.

How long has HHO been used as an alternative fuel?

The technology for HHO fuel has been around for as far back as WWII. The oil companies don't want us to know this, because that would result in a huge loss of profit. In WWII due to shortage of conventional fuel, the British army used HHO gas in their boats, tanks and other vehicles to avoid engine overheating, and achive much better gas mileage. However after the war, the government issued an order to destroy any and all generators in the vehicles. Fortunately, a few survived, and that's part of where the basis for the modern fuel conversion kits came into place. In the 70's Stanley Meyer drove his dune buggy across country using only HHO gas as fuel. To learn more about his patents visit:

http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=5149407.PN.&OS=PN/5149407&RS=PN/5149407

What type of pollutants are produced by internal combustion engines?

Fuel + Air => Hydrocarbons + Nitrogen Oxides + Carbon Dioxide + Carbon Monoxide + water

Hydrocarbon emissions are fragments of fuel molecules, only partially burned. Hydrocarbons react in the presence of nitrogen oxides and sunlight to form ground-level ozone, a major component of smog. Ozone irritates the eyes, nose, throat and damages the lungs. A number of exhaust hydrocarbons are also toxic, some with the potential to cause cancer.

What are hydrocarbons?

Hydrocarbons are chemical compounds consisting entirely of carbon and hydrogen. They are a subset of organic compounds. Hydrocarbons range from methane, which is just one carbon atom bonded to four hydrogen atoms, to polymers such as polystyrene, which consists of thousands of carbon and hydrogen atoms. As carbon-carbon bonds are the strongest in all of chemistry, long chains with carbon backbones are extremely durable, and seem to have a practically unlimited extent.

Hydrocarbons come in a variety of forms. They may be gases (methane and propane), liquids (hexane and benzene), waxes (paraffin wax), or polymers (polyethylene and polystyrene). Hydrocarbons can be processed to create plastics.

The primary sources of hydrocarbons here on Earth are fossil fuels – coal, oil, and natural gas. These are extracted from the ground in quantities of millions of tons per day, and are the primary energy source for today’s civilization. 85% of all electricity worldwide is generated by the burning of hydrocarbons, and hydrocarbon fuel is used to propel practically every mobile machine: cars, trucks, trains, planes, ships, etc.

Which generator is the right one for me?

There are many companies all claiming to have the best HHO producing generators. Don't be fooled by fancy words and empty promises. Before you make a decision do you homework. Visit:http://www.hho4free.com/hho_companies.htm, click on companies. It is the best and most comprehensive hho site there is.    

How can I calculate the carbon footprint of my car?

First you need to know: how many gallons of gasoline or diesel you put into your car or truck? Next, take that number and multiply x 20.The answer is close to the pounds of carbon your vehicle is putting into the air.

What is overunity?

The term "over unity" is often used by HHO Generator manufacturers. It is Faradays Law which states that "you can not get more energy out of something than you put in" as that would constitute Over Unity. Faraday law states, 100% efficient electrolysis requires 2.4 Watthours of energy for 1 liter of HHO gas production.

For electrolysis the formula is:

Energy input in Watthours = used (Volts x Amps) x seconds used to produce 1 liter of HHO gas / 3600 seconds

Example:

Lets say your cell does "4 LPM at 13.6 volts and 30 amps"

Energy input (Watthours) = 13.1 x 30 x 15 seconds (time to produce 1 liter) / 3600 = 1.63 Watthours. This is not possible.

If you get less than 2.4 Watthours you have overunity which means over 100% efficiency and that goes against Faraday law and laws of physics in general. This is a good way to find out if the manufacturer is being dishonest. If the answer is more than 2.4 Watthours you have underunity which means you have less than 100% efficiency.In truth all HHO generator are much less than 100% efficient due to several factors such as power transfer, use of stainless steel which is poor conductor of electricity,current leakage between the plates, etc.

By taking all factors into account, it is very hard to go beyond 68% efficiency. Our X2 model for example produces 1.75 LPM at 27 amps:

Energy input (Watthours) = 12.6 x 27 x 34 ( seconds to produce 1 liter ) / 3600 = 3.21 Watthours.

To calculate the efficiency the formula is as follows:

100 x 7744 x LPM / voltage x amps x Test period in seconds = efficiency

100 x 7744 x 1.75 / 12.6 x 27 x 60 = 66% efficiency

Another approach:

MMW (milliliters per minute of output) / watts where 7 represents 100% efficiency.

Using the above example: 1750 mililiters / 12.6 x 27 = 5.14

By using these simple formulas you can find out the truth about an HHO generator before you purchase one.

What is OBD-II ?

On-Board Diagnostic systems are in most cars and light trucks on the road today. During the '70s and early 1980's manufacturers started using electronic means to control engine functions and diagnose engine problems. This was primarily to meet EPA emission standards. Through the years on-board diagnostic systems have become more sophisticated. OBD-II, a new standard introduced in the mid-'90s, provides almost complete engine control and also monitors parts of the chassis, body and accessory devices, as well as the diagnostic control network of the car.

Do I Have An OBD-II Vehicle?

Some 1994 and 1995 model year vehicles do have OBD-II. If your vehicle is 1996 or newer, U.S. federal law requires that all vehicles (cars and light trucks) sold in the United States must be OBD-II compliant. This includes all domestic (Ford, Dodge, GM, etc.) and import/foreign (Toyota, Honda,etc.) vehicles.

The sure-fire way to find out if your vehicle is OBD-II compliant is to look for the standard DLC (data link connector) that all OBD II vehicles have. It will be located underneath the driver's side of the dash. Now, if your vehicle is 1996 or newer, you definitely have OBD-II. If your vehicle is older than 1996, the presence of the DLC may or may not indicate that you have OBD-II. To verify, look under the hood for a VECI label. The VECI label will indicate whether or not the vehicle is OBD-II compliant.  

How much electricity is needed to produce HHO ?

Electricity is the flow of charged particles called electrons. In order to split water into Hydrogen gas and Oxygen, an electric current can be used. The rate at which the Hydroxy (HHO) gas is produced is directly proportional to the electric current ( amps) used through the electrolytic cell. Theoretically, there is no "minimum" current needed, it is just that higher currents will produce Hydrogen faster than lower currents. There is, however, a minimum voltage which must be applied to the electrolytic cell in order to facilitate breaking the bonds between the Hydrogen and Oxygen. The minimum voltage can be calculated by knowing the reduction potentials of Hydrogen and Oxygen.

The electrolytic reaction which occurs to split water is, 2H2O (l) –electrolysis–> 2H2 (g) + O2 (g) But you can break this down in to an oxidation and reduction reaction occurring at the anode and cathode of the electrolytic cell, 2 H2O(l) –> O2 (g) + 4 H+ (aq) + 4 electrons 2 H+ (aq) + 2 electrons –> H2 (g)

You can see that for every 1 mole of Hydrogen gas produced, 2 moles of electrons (AKA, 2 Faradays of electrons) must pass through the cell. This is why the current is the determining factor of reaction speed.

Also, remember Ohm’s law, V = RI Where V is the voltage, R is the resistance, and I is the current. With a given resistance, a higher voltage will produce a higher current. Also, with a given voltage, a lower resistance allows a higher current. Sometimes (depending on the electrolyte used) a higher voltage is not desirable, even undesirable in some circumstances, so it is best not to use a higher voltage than what is necessary.

How can I protect my cell from freezing ?

Adding a freezing point depressant is recommended during the winter months. You may have to add more freezing point depressant throughout the winter, since it is volatile, meaning that it will disappear along with the HHO being produced.

Methyl alcohol - Sometimes called methanol is a very poisonous and a highly effective freezing point depressant for water. This is the same active ingredient found in windshield washer fluid. HEET® Brand gas line additive has methyl alcohol, but ISO-HEET contains isopropyl alcohol and I would not recommend it as highly because of its volatility. You can spot methyl alcohol often by the skull-and-crossbones danger labels warning of blindness if consumed and stating that it cannot be made non-poisonous. A 12 oz. bottle of HEET has sufficient poison to kill three adults, so be careful how you store it. It is not too big of a deal if you get a little on your skin as long as you wash it off. You will need 20% methanol by volume to get a freezing point (melting point) of 11 °F (-12 °C) which is what people in the South might expect. For those of you in northern climates, 30% methanol will work down to -4 °F (-20 °C), and 45% methanol for -32 °F (-35 °C) freeze protection in the extreme North. Once the freeze danger has passed, remove the methanol due to its volatility and its competition with electrolysis. Proceed with caution when working with methanol near aluminum parts, because methanol may corrode aluminum. Here is a hint: if you are working close to an aluminum radiator, keep the methanol away from it by using a funnel or absorbent material. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Methanol

Ethyl alcohol - Commonly called grain alcohol, ethanol is the active ingredient in adult beverages. You can buy it in large quantities, as long as it is mixed with methyl alcohol. Such mixtures are known as denatured alcohol because they are poisonous. Ethanol makes a poor freezing point depressant in low concentrations, which is why methyl alcohol is preferred. You will need 27% ethanol by volume to get a freezing point of 10 °F (-12 °C) which is what people in the South might expect. For those of you in northern climates, 36% ethanol will work down to -2 °F (-20 °C), and concentrations over 50% ethanol to achieve freeze protectiothe extremeNorth.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethanol

What is Passivation Process?   

All our stainless plates go through passivation process which is performed to make the surface passive, i.e., a surface film is created that causes the surface to lose its chemical reactivity. Stainless steel passivation unipotentializes the stainless steel with the oxygen absorbed by the metal surface, creating a monomolecular oxide film. Passivation can result in the very much-desired low corrosion rate of the metal. Most HHO Generator manufactureres are not aware or simply avoid this process, because it is time consuming, laborsome, and requires certain skills and knowledge.

The passivation is performed when free iron, oxide scale, rust, iron particles, metal chips or other nonvolatile deposits might adversely affect the metallurgical or sanitary condition or stability of the surface, the mechanical operation of a part, component or system, or contaminate the process fluid.

Careful process control is essential for the application of a quality passivation coating. A range of variables are factored into the calculations:

(a) Bath control (time, temperature and concentration)

(b) Watepurity                                                                                                                                                                                          

(c) Adjustment of bath solution to the stainless steel type              

(d) Chemical maintenance through the passivation process.

A failure in process control can mean extreme pitting, etching, or even catastrophic failure and total dissolution of the entire component. Steels containing more than 11% Chromium are capable of forming an invisible, inert or passive, self-repairing oxide film on their surface. It is this passive layer that gives stainless steels their corrosion resistance. If a stainless steel surface is scratched, then more Chromium is exposed which reacts with oxygen allowing the passive layer to reform. However, if a particle of carbon steel is embedded in the scratch then the passive layer cannot reform and corrosion will occur when the metal is wetted or exposed to a corrosive environment such as electrotyte bath.

Where is the best place to mount the generator?

We recommend that the unit  be mounted between the radiator and front pumper. On most late model cars, there is ample space for HHO generator and bubbler. In other cases the unit can be mounted anywhere under the hood away from the engine.            

                          

Our HHO generators are designed to fit in cramped engine compartments. The pictures above illustrate the installation of X2 and XS Generator Kit.